Albert Einstein in his last times tried hard to find a theory that can explain both the reality of the celestial bodies as well as an atom. He tried to combine his general theory of relativity and quantum physics to form a theory of everything. A theory that can explain the reality of this Universe. After Einstein, Physicists tried to finish the unfinished work of Einstein. They discovered String theory which describes quantum physics with gravity.


In this Universe, four fundamental forces exist strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetism, and gravitational force. Now the problem was that the phenomenon of gravitational force works incase of celestial bodies while the other three forces were related to atoms and subatomic particles. The physicist wanted to derive a theory in which the gravitational force is applicable to microbodies. String theory is a theory in which they tried to combine all the four forces in order to end the contrast between classical physics and quantum physics.


String theory states that the point-like dots of particle physics are not fundamental particles but they are one-dimensional tiny strings. String theory is also known as quantum gravity theory.


If you take a glass of water and then observe it. You will find that the water is made up of H2O molecules. Now if we only take the H molecule from the H2O and examine it, we will discover that it is made up of three fundamental particles proton, neutron, and electron. Now if we only take a neutron from that hydrogen atom and examine it. We will discover that the neutrons are made up of small quarks which are billionth times smaller than atoms and neutrons. Quantum mechanics believe that the quarks are the smallest particles that form a neutron and then atoms. On the other hand, String theory says that the quarks are even made up of small tiny strings.

According to strings theory, each and everything in this Universe is made up of small vibrating tiny strings. These strings can also be open or in closed (loop) form. By vibrating the strings of a Guitar, it produces different sounds. Just like that the different vibrations of strings give a different shape to those particles. Their shape and mode of vibration decide the shape and charge of these particles.


Dimensions are usually used to notice the changes happening in this Universe. We live in a four-dimensional world where the first three are dimensions of place (x,y,z) and the fourth one is the dimension of time. Time is one dimensional because it can travel in only one direction (forward direction). The strings in strings theory are made up of 10 dimensions. The first four dimensions are lengthwidthheight, and time. In the fifth dimension, there are two parallel worlds. Both of them are apart from each other and a person can be present at two places at the same time. This is our fifth dimension. In the sixth dimension, a person can travel in time. He can meet himself in a parallel world by traveling in time. In the seventh dimension, the two parallel worlds are connected and they have the same system. In this dimension, there are only two parallel worlds so a person can move only backward and forward. In Eight dimension, there is three or four Universe. A person can travel from one universe to the other. In the ninth dimension, there is multiple Universe. A person can travel to a different Universe in many ways. In the tenth dimension, there is no time limit and the person can travel from one dimension to the other because there is no limit of time or energy in it. The particles and bodies in the tenth dimension are massless. These are the total of 10 dimensions of the string theory.

Problems in String Theory

There are a lot of problems in String theory. . It is still not proved mathematically yet and they are working on it for the last half-decade. We will discuss a few problems here;

  1. It is not proved experimentally.
  2. The concept of two parallel worlds and time travel is not proven yet.
  3. A group of scientists believe; it’s just a hoax.

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